Graphene and Ultrathin 2D Materials

Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are drawing in drastically expanding enthusiasm after Novoselov, Geim, and collaborators peeled graphene from graphite utilizing the mechanical cleavage technique. Graphene, it is a single-atom-thick, crystalline carbon film that displays different phenomenal properties, for example, ultrahigh bearer mobility at room temperature (∼10 000 cm2 V– 1 s– 1), quantum hall effect, large theoretical surface area (2630 m2 g– 1), magnificent optical transparency (∼97.7%), high Young's modulus (∼1 TPa), and fantastic thermal conductivity (3000– 5000 W m– 1 K– 1).

The surprising physical, optical, and electronic properties of graphene have motivated us to explore other ultrathin 2D nanomaterials that have comparable layered structure includes yet flexible properties, for example, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN),graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4),layered metal oxides and layered double  hydroxides. Intriguingly, numerous new kinds of ultrathin 2D crystals, for example, metal– organic frameworks, covalent-organic systems, polymers, metals, black phosphorus, silicone and MXenes, have additionally been explored in recent years, extraordinary advancing group of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials. In view of their exceptional basic highlights and extraordinary properties, ultrathin 2D nanomaterials have turned into a key class of materials in consolidated issue of physics, materials science, and chemistry.